Cipolleschi, M, et al, The Role of Hypoxia in the Maintenance of Hematopoietic Stem Cells, Blood, 1993; 82:2031-2037

Asahara, T., et al, Bone Marrow Origin of Endothelial Progenitor Cells Responsible for Postnatal Vasculogenesis in Physiological and Pathological Neovascularization, Circulation Research, 1999; 85:221-228

Shintani, S., et al, Augmentation of Postnatal Neovascularization with Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation, Circulation, 2001; 103:897-903

Murayama, T, et al, Determination of Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cell Significance in Angiogenic Growth Factor-Induced Neovascularization In Vivo, Experimental Hematology, 2002; 30:967-972

Bouletreau, P, et al, Hypoxia and VEGF Up-Regulate BMP-2 mRNA and Protein Expression in Microvascular Endothelial Cells: Implications for Fracture Healing, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 2002; 109:2384-2397

Rafii, S, et al, Therapeutic Stem Progenitor Cell Transplantation for Organ Vascularization and Regeneration, Nature Medicine, 2003; 9:702-712

Olmsted-Davis, E, et al, Primitive Adult Hematopoietic Stem Cells can Function as Osteoblast Precursors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 2003; 100:15877-15882

Dominici, M., et al, Hematopoietic Cells and Osteoblasts are Derived from a Common Marrow Progenitor after Bone Marrow Transplantation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2004; 32:11761-11766

Jung, Y, et al, Cell-to-Cell Contact is Critical for the Survival of Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells on Osteoblasts, Cytokine, 2005; 32:155-162

Tepper, O, et al, Adult Vasculogenesis Occurs Through in Situ Recruitment, Proliferation, and Tubulization of Circulating Bone Marrow-Derived Cells, Blood, 2005; 95:1068-1077

Taichman, S, Blood and Bone: Two Tissues Whose Fates are Intertwined to Create the Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Niche, Blood, 2005; 105:2631-2639

Fang, T.D., et al, Angiogenesis is Required for Successful Bone Induction During Distraction Osteogeneis, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 2005; 20:1114-1124

Bilic-Curcic, I, et al, Origins of Endothelial and Osteogenic Cells in the Subcutaneous Collagen Gel Implant, Bone, 2005; 37:678-687

de Boer, H, et al, Fibrin and Activated Platelets Cooperatively Guide Stem Cells to a Vascular Injury and Promote Differentiation Towards an Endothelial Cell Phenotype, Arterioscler Thromb Vascular Biologogy, 2006; 26:1653-1659

Urbich, C, et al, Current Endothelial Progenitor Cells: Characterization and Role in Vascular Biology, Circulatory Research, 2004; 95:343-353

Ceradini, D, et al, Homing to Hypoxia, Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2005; 15:57-63

Cetrulo, C, et al, Stem Cells and Distraction Osteogenesis: Endothelial Progenitor Cells Home to the Ischemic Generate in Activation and Consolidation, Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, 2005; 116:1053-1064

Massberg, S, et al, Platelets Secrete Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1a and Recruitment Bone Marrow-Derived Progenitor Cells to Arterial Thrombi In Vivo, Journal of Experimental Medicine, 2006; 203:1221-1233

Togel, F, et al, Regenerative Medicine with Adult Bone Marrow Derived Stem Cells, Dtsch Arztebl, 2007; 104:1663-1670


Orthopedic - General

Muschler, G, et al, Age- and Gender-Related Changes in the Cellularity of Human Bone Marrow and the Prevalence of Osteoblastic Progenitors, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2001: 19;117-125

Romih, M, et al, The Vertebral Interbody Grafting Site’s Low Concentration in Osteogenic Progenitors can Greatly Benefit from Addition of Illiac Crest Bone Marrow, European Spine Journal, 2005: 14;645-648.

Bodke, D, et al, Bone Grafts Prepared with Selective Cell Retention Technology Heal Canine Segmental Defects as Effectively as Autografts, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2006: 14;857-866

Dallari, D, et al, In Vivo Study on the Healing of Bone Defects Treated with Bone Marrow Stromal Cells, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Freeze-Dried Bone Allografts, Alone and in Combination, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2006: 24;887-888


Orthopedic - Joints

Steinberg, M, et al, Core Decompression with Bone Grafting for Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2001; 386:71-78

Hernigou, P, et al, Treatment of Osteonecrosis with Autologous Bone Marrow Grafting, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2002; 405:14-23

Gangji, V, et al, Treatment of Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head with Implantation of Autologous Bone-Marrow Cells: A Pilot Study, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2004; 86-A:1153-1160


Orthopedic - Spine

Muschler, G.F., et al, Spine Fusion Using Cell Matrix Composites Enriched in Bone Marrow-Derived Cells, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 2003;407:102-118.

Shen, F, et al, Cell Technologies for Spinal Fusion, The Spine Journal, 2005: 5;231S-239S.

Brodke, D, et al, Bone Grafts Prepared with Selective Cell Retention Technology Heal Canine Segmental Defects as Effectively as Autograft, Journal of Orthopaedic Research, 2006: 24;857-866


Orthopedic - Trauma

Connolly, J, Development of an Osteogenic Bone-Marrow Preparation, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, June 1989; 684-691

Connolly, J, Autologous Marrow Injection as a Substitute for Operative Grafting of Tibial Nonunions, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1991; 266;259-270

Connolly, J, Clinical Use of Marrow Osteoprogenitor Cells to Stimulate Osteogenesis, Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, 1998; 355S:S257-S266

Hernigou, P., et al, Percutaneous Autlogous Bone-Marrow Grafting for Nonuions: Influence of the Number and Concentration of Progenitor Cells, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2005; 87-A; 1430-1437

Hernigou, P., et al, Percutaneous Autlogous Bone-Marrow Grafting for Nonuions: Surgical Technique, Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 2006; 88;322-327

Neiman, R., Treatment of Tibial Nonunion and Delayed Union by Percutaneous Injection of Concentrated Autologous Stem Cells: An Alternative to Surgical Repair - A Case Report, February 2007

Leal, L, Adult Stem Cell Treatment Strategy for Jones Fracture and Nonunion of the Proximal Fifth Metatarsal – A Case Report, October, 2007

Brief, A, Less Invasive Osteochondral Defect Repair of the Talus Using Percutaneous Delivery of Concentrated Autologous Adult Stem Cells – A Case Report, October, 2007


Bone Morphogenetic Proteins

Walker, H, et al, Bone Morphogenetic Proteins and Spinal Fusion, Neurosurgical Focus, 2002; 13:1-13

Kanayama, M, et al, A Prospective Randomized Study of Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion Using Osteogenic Protein-1 (OP-1) Versus Local Autograft with Ceramic Bone Substitute, Spine, 2006; 31:1067-1074

Pradhan, B, et al, Graft Resorption with the Use of Bone Morphogenetic Protein: Lessons from Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Femoral Ring Allografts and Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2, Spine, 2006; 31:E277-E284

Tomoyasu, A, et al, Platelet Rich Plasma Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in the Presence of BMPs, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 2007; 361:62-67



Hamano, K, et al, The Induction of Angiogenesis by the Implantation of Autologous Bone Marrow Cells: A Novel and Simple Therapeutic Method, Surgery, 2001; 130:44-54.

Yuyama, E, et al, Therapeutic Angiogenesis for Patients with Limb Ischemia by Autologous Transplantation of Bone-Marrow Cells: A Pilot Study and a Randomised Controlled Trial, The Lancet, 2002; 360:427-435

Esato, K, et al, Neovascularization Induced by Autlogous Bone Marrow Cell Implantation in Peripheral Arterial Disease, Cell Transplantation, 2002; 11:747-752

Al-Khaldi, A, et al, Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Autlogous Bone Marrow Stromal Cells: Improved Blood Flow in a Chronic Limb Ischemia Model, Annuals of Thoracic Surgery, 2003; 75:204-209

Saigawa, T, et al, Clinical Application of Bone Marrow Implantation in Patients with Arteriosclerosis Obliterans, and the Association between Efficacy and the Number of Implanted Bone Marrow Cells, Circulation Journal, 2004; 68:1189-1193

Amann, B, et al, Bone Marrow Stem Cell Injections: Can They be a Treatment for Critical Ischemia and How do They Work?, Vascular, 2006; 14:S153